Difference between revisions of "Tensile strength"

From Soft-Matter
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 6: Line 6:
 
4. Fracture
 
4. Fracture
 
5. Offset strain (typically 0.2%) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_tensile_strength)]]
 
5. Offset strain (typically 0.2%) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_tensile_strength)]]
The <b>tensile strength</b> is the maximum stress that can sustained by a structure in tension; if this stress is applied and maintained, the sample will fracture. It is important to note, however, that tensile strength is not necessarily the same as [[fracture strength]]. Let's consider the typical stress-strain curve of a [[ductile]] material seen in Figure 1. You obtain such a curve by doing a [[tensile test]], one of the most common mechanical tests. Tensile tests can be used to ascertain several important [[mechanical properties]], such as the tensile strength of a material.   
+
The <b>tensile strength</b> (also called ultimate tensile strength) is the maximum stress that can sustained by a structure in tension; if this stress is applied and maintained, the sample will fracture. It is important to note, however, that tensile strength is not necessarily the same as [[fracture strength]]. Let's consider the typical stress-strain curve of a [[ductile]] material seen in Figure 1. You obtain such a curve by doing a [[tensile test]], one of the most common mechanical tests. Tensile tests can be used to ascertain several important [[Mechanical Properties|mechanical properties]], such as the tensile strength of a material.  For a ductile material, after [[yielding]], the stress necessary to continue [[plastic deformation]] increases to a maximum, and then decreases to the eventual fracture point. The highest point of the stress-strain curve is the tensile strength, corresponding to point 1. All deformation up to this point is uniform through the narrow region of the tensile specimen. However, at this maximum stress, a small constriction or neck begins to form (typically near the middle of the sample), and all subsequent deformation is confined at this neck. This phenomenon is termed "[[necking]]", and fracture ultimate occurs at the neck. [[Fracture strength]] corresponds to the stress at fracture. It is clear that the tensile strength is not the same as the fracture strength in this case. However, for [[brittle]] materials, these will tend to be more similar.
 +
In brittle materials, the UTS will at the end of the linear-elastic portion of the stress-strain curve or close to the elastic limit. In ductile materials, the UTS will be well outside of the elastic portion into the plastic portion of the stress-strain curve.
  
All derformation up to this point is uniform through the narrow region of the tensile specimen. However, at this maximum stress, a small constriction or neck begins to form at some point, and all subsequent deformation is confined at this neck. This phenomenon is termed "[[necking]]", and fracture ultimate occurs at the neck. [[Fracture strength]] corresponds to the stress at fracture.
+
Tensile strength is defined as a stress, which is measured as force per unit area. It is typically reported in units Pa or psi.
 +
The tensile strength is an [[intensive]] property, meaning that its value does not depend on the size of the test specimen. However, it is dependent on other factors, such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, and the temperature of the test environment and material.
  
 +
The UTS may not be completely representative of the highest level of stress that a material can support, but the value is not typically used in the design of components anyway. For ductile metals the current design practice is to use the yield strength for sizing static components. However, since the UTS is easy to determine and quite reproducible, it is useful for the purposes of specifying a material and for quality control purposes. On the other hand, for brittle materials the design of a component may be based on the tensile strength of the material.
  
 +
==Typical tensile strengths==
  
The UTS is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the stress versus strain; the highest point of the stress-strain curve is the UTS. It is an intensive property; therefore its value does not depend on the size of the test specimen. However, it is dependent on other factors, such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, and the temperature of the test environment and material.
+
{| class = "wikitable sortable"
 
+
|+Typical tensile strengths of some materials (from [2])
After yielding, the stress necessary to continue plastic deformation increases to a mximum, and then decreases to the eventual fracture point. The tensile strength is the stress at the maximum on the engineering stress-strain curve.  
+
|-
 
+
! Material !! Yield strength<br> (MPa) !! Ultimate strength<br> (MPa) !! Density<br> (g/cm³)
Tensile strength is defined as a stress, which is measured as force per unit area. It is typically reported in units Pa or psi.  
+
|-
 
+
| Structural steel ASTM A36 steel              || 250 || 400 || 7.8
 
+
|-
The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) or, more simply, the tensile strength, is the maximum engineering stress level reached in a tension test. The strength of a material is its ability to withstand external forces without breaking. In brittle materials, the UTS will at the end of the linear-elastic portion of the stress-strain curve or close to the elastic limit. In ductile materials, the UTS will be well outside of the elastic portion into the plastic portion of the stress-strain curve.
+
| Carbon steel 1090 || 250 || 841 || 7.58
 +
|-
 +
| Human skin || 15  ||  ||
 +
|-
 +
| Steel, high strength alloy ASTM A514      || 690 || 760 || 7.8
 +
|-
 +
| High density polyethylene (HDPE)      || 26-33  || 37  || 0.95
 +
|-
 +
| Polypropylene                          || 12-43  || 19.7-80  || 0.91
 +
|-
 +
| Stainless steel AISI 302 - Cold-rolled || 520 || 860 || 8.19
 +
|-
 +
| Cast iron 4.5% C, ASTM A-48            ||  130  || 200 || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| Aluminium alloy 6063-T6                          || &nbsp; || 248 || 2.63
 +
|-
 +
| Copper 99.9% Cu                            || 70 || 220 || 8.92
 +
|-
 +
| Cupronickel 10% Ni, 1.6% Fe, 1% Mn, balance Cu || 130 || 350 || 8.94
 +
|-
 +
| Brass                                        || 200 +|| 550 || 5.3
 +
|-
 +
| Tungsten                                  || &nbsp; || 1510 || 19.25
 +
|-
 +
| glass (fiber)|E-Glass                                || N/A || 1500 for laminates, <br>3450 for fibers alone || 2.57
 +
|-
 +
| glass (fiber)|S-Glass                                || N/A || 4710 || 2.48
 +
|-
 +
| Marble                                || N/A || 15 || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| Concrete                              || N/A || 3 || 2.7
 +
|-
 +
| carbon (fiber)|Carbon fiber                          || N/A || 1600 for Laminate,<br>4137 for fiber alone || 1.75
 +
|-
 +
| Human hair                          || &nbsp; || 380 || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| Bamboo                          || &nbsp; || 350-500 || 0.4
 +
|-
 +
| Spider silk        ||  || 1000 || 1.3
 +
|-
 +
| Silkworm silk                          || 500 || &nbsp; || 1.3
 +
|-
 +
| Aramid (Kevlar]] or Twaron)      || 3620 || 2757 || 1.44
 +
|-
 +
| Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene| 23 || 46 || 0.97
 +
|-
 +
| Vectran                              || &nbsp; || 2850-3340 || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| Pine wood (parallel to grain)      || &nbsp; || 40 || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| Bone (limb)                            || 104-121 || 130 || 1.6
 +
|-
 +
| Nylon, type 6/6 || 45 || 75 || 1.15
 +
|-
 +
| Rubber || - || 15 || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| Boron || N/A || 3100 || 2.46
 +
|-
 +
| Silicon, monocrystalline (m-Si) || N/A || 7000 || 2.33
 +
|-
 +
| Silicon carbide (SiC) || N/A || 3440 || &nbsp;
 +
|-
 +
| Sapphire (Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) || N/A || 1900 || 3.9-4.1
 +
|-
 +
| Boron Nitride Nanotube || N/A || 33000 || ?
 +
|-
 +
| Diamond || N/A || 2800 || 3.5
 +
|-
 +
| First carbon nanotube ropes              || ?|| 3600 || 1.3
 +
|-
 +
| Colossal carbon tube || N/A || 7000 || 0.116
 +
|-
 +
| Carbon nanotube || N/A || 11000-63000 || 0.037-1.34
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
On the stress-strain curve above, the UTS is the highest point where the line is momentarily flat. Since the UTS is based on the engineering stress, it is often not the same as the breaking strength. In ductile materials strain hardening occurs and the stress will continue to increase until fracture occurs, but the engineering stress-strain curve may show a decline in the stress level before fracture occurs. This is the result of engineering stress being based on the original cross-section area and not accounting for the necking that commonly occurs in the test specimen. The UTS may not be completely representative of the highest level of stress that a material can support, but the value is not typically used in the design of components anyway. For ductile metals the current design practice is to use the yield strength for sizing static components. However, since the UTS is easy to determine and quite reproducible, it is useful for the purposes of specifying a material and for quality control purposes. On the other hand, for brittle materials the design of a component may be based on the tensile strength of the material.
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Revision as of 14:41, 10 December 2011

Entry by Emily Redston, AP 225, Fall 2011

Figure 1 Stress vs. Strain curve typical of aluminum 1. Ultimate strength 2. Yield strength 3. Proportional limit stress 4. Fracture 5. Offset strain (typically 0.2%) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_tensile_strength)

The tensile strength (also called ultimate tensile strength) is the maximum stress that can sustained by a structure in tension; if this stress is applied and maintained, the sample will fracture. It is important to note, however, that tensile strength is not necessarily the same as fracture strength. Let's consider the typical stress-strain curve of a ductile material seen in Figure 1. You obtain such a curve by doing a tensile test, one of the most common mechanical tests. Tensile tests can be used to ascertain several important mechanical properties, such as the tensile strength of a material. For a ductile material, after yielding, the stress necessary to continue plastic deformation increases to a maximum, and then decreases to the eventual fracture point. The highest point of the stress-strain curve is the tensile strength, corresponding to point 1. All deformation up to this point is uniform through the narrow region of the tensile specimen. However, at this maximum stress, a small constriction or neck begins to form (typically near the middle of the sample), and all subsequent deformation is confined at this neck. This phenomenon is termed "necking", and fracture ultimate occurs at the neck. Fracture strength corresponds to the stress at fracture. It is clear that the tensile strength is not the same as the fracture strength in this case. However, for brittle materials, these will tend to be more similar. In brittle materials, the UTS will at the end of the linear-elastic portion of the stress-strain curve or close to the elastic limit. In ductile materials, the UTS will be well outside of the elastic portion into the plastic portion of the stress-strain curve.

Tensile strength is defined as a stress, which is measured as force per unit area. It is typically reported in units Pa or psi. The tensile strength is an intensive property, meaning that its value does not depend on the size of the test specimen. However, it is dependent on other factors, such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, and the temperature of the test environment and material.

The UTS may not be completely representative of the highest level of stress that a material can support, but the value is not typically used in the design of components anyway. For ductile metals the current design practice is to use the yield strength for sizing static components. However, since the UTS is easy to determine and quite reproducible, it is useful for the purposes of specifying a material and for quality control purposes. On the other hand, for brittle materials the design of a component may be based on the tensile strength of the material.

Typical tensile strengths

Typical tensile strengths of some materials (from [2])
Material Yield strength
(MPa)
Ultimate strength
(MPa)
Density
(g/cm³)
Structural steel ASTM A36 steel 250 400 7.8
Carbon steel 1090 250 841 7.58
Human skin 15
Steel, high strength alloy ASTM A514 690 760 7.8
High density polyethylene (HDPE) 26-33 37 0.95
Polypropylene 12-43 19.7-80 0.91
Stainless steel AISI 302 - Cold-rolled 520 860 8.19
Cast iron 4.5% C, ASTM A-48 130 200  
Aluminium alloy 6063-T6   248 2.63
Copper 99.9% Cu 70 220 8.92
Cupronickel 10% Ni, 1.6% Fe, 1% Mn, balance Cu 130 350 8.94
Brass 200 + 550 5.3
Tungsten   1510 19.25
E-Glass N/A 1500 for laminates,
3450 for fibers alone
2.57
S-Glass N/A 4710 2.48
Marble N/A 15  
Concrete N/A 3 2.7
Carbon fiber N/A 1600 for Laminate,
4137 for fiber alone
1.75
Human hair   380  
Bamboo   350-500 0.4
Spider silk 1000 1.3
Silkworm silk 500   1.3
Aramid (Kevlar]] or Twaron) 3620 2757 1.44
23 46 0.97
Vectran   2850-3340  
Pine wood (parallel to grain)   40  
Bone (limb) 104-121 130 1.6
Nylon, type 6/6 45 75 1.15
Rubber - 15  
Boron N/A 3100 2.46
Silicon, monocrystalline (m-Si) N/A 7000 2.33
Silicon carbide (SiC) N/A 3440  
Sapphire (Al2O3) N/A 1900 3.9-4.1
Boron Nitride Nanotube N/A 33000  ?
Diamond N/A 2800 3.5
First carbon nanotube ropes  ? 3600 1.3
Colossal carbon tube N/A 7000 0.116
Carbon nanotube N/A 11000-63000 0.037-1.34


References

[1] Callister, William D. Materials Science and Engineering: an Introduction. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_tensile_strength

Keyword in references:

Electronic skin: architecture and components