Difference between revisions of "Magnetic Colloids from Magnetotactic Bacteria: Chain Formation and Colloidal Stability"

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(Soft matter keywords)
 
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==Soft matter keywords==
 
==Soft matter keywords==
Liposome, C2AB, Vesicle, Protein, [[Epoxy]].
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[[Magnetotactic Bacteria]], paramagnetism, iron oxide, colloids, debye length.
 
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==Summary==
 
==Summary==
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions and colloidal stability of the single domain magnetic nanoparticles produced by magnetotactic bacteria.  Magnetotactic bacteria are a really cool type of bacteria that create these iron oxide paramagnetic nanoparticles within their cell walls that align with the earth's magnetic field which in turn direct the the bacteria down towards the ocean floor, to anaerobic conditions where they thrive.  These researchers wanted to look at how these magnetic particles would effect the interactions between different bacteria.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions and colloidal stability of the single domain magnetic nanoparticles produced by magnetotactic bacteria.  Magnetotactic bacteria are a really cool type of bacteria that create these iron oxide paramagnetic nanoparticles within their cell walls that align with the earth's magnetic field which in turn direct the the bacteria down towards the ocean floor, to anaerobic conditions where they thrive.  These researchers wanted to look at how these magnetic particles would effect the interactions between different bacteria, and to investigate the properties of the magnetic colloids when extracted from the bacteria.
  
 
==Soft matter discussion==
 
==Soft matter discussion==
  
[[Image:C2AB.jpg|500px|thumb|left|Schematic illustration of experimentImmobilized vesicles 'glued' to mobile vesicles via C2AB.]]
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[[Image:Bacteria1.jpg|500px|thumb|left|Top and bottom images show a magnetotactic bacteria with magnetic colloids formed as chainsMiddle image shows a magnetotactic bacteria with extracted magnetic colloids.]]
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[[Image:Bacteria2.jpg|500px|thumb|right|All different really cool formations and aggregations that spontaneously arose from extracted magnetic colloids.]]
  
[[Image:C2AB3.jpg|500px|thumb|left|(a) shows TIR images before and after the introduction of <math>Ca^{2+}</math>. (b) and (c) show TEM images of the liposomes before and after the addition of <math>Ca^{2+}</math>]]
 
  
[[Image:C2AB4.jpg|500px|thumb|right|Open and closed conformations of C2AB, from the paper: Structure of Human Synaptotagmin 1 C2AB in the Absence of Ca2+ Reveals a Novel Domain Association. Kerry L. Fuson,, Miguel Montes,, J. Justin Robert, and, R. Bryan Sutton. Biochemistry 2007 46 (45), 13041-13048]]
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[[Image:Bacteria3.jpg|500px|thumb|right|Magnetic (left) and topographic (right) images of the extracted magnetic colloids.]]
  
The academic group conducting this research is experimenting with liposomes as a drug delivery vehicle.  They believe they can solve the problem of targeting the liposome to the correct cells, however there is a perceived problem that the concentration of the drug in each liposome will not have the necessary efficacyThey hope to be able to fuse the liposomes together at the site of the target to ensure that the drug concentration is high enough to provide a sufficient dosage.
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The academic group conducting this research was interested in single domain iron oxide colloids.  They noted that the size of the colloids in magnetotactic bacteria (50nm) was much larger than anything that would form spontaneously form ferrofluids (10nm).  Because they are so large they are expected to have much stronger dipole forces, and should form different patterns such as chains and rings if removed from the bacteriaThe group wants to look at the properties of these colloids when removed from the bacteria, and this is their first study examining the magnetic properties of the bacteria themselves.
  
They are collaborating this work with a group that has been studying the protein C2AB which is used in cells as a calcium sensor in synaptic vesicle exocytosisThe protein has two active sites, one of which binds 2 <math>Ca^{2+}</math>, the other binding 3 <math>Ca^{2+}</math>. When this protein binds the <math>Ca^{2+}</math> it undergoes a conformational change that creates two positively charged ends that are very strongly attracted to negatively charged liposomesThe charge and conformation taken together cause the C2AB to pierce through the liposome and the C2AB secures itself in within the membrane.
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The first thing they did was cultivate the bacteria, after this was performed they took some awesome pictures as shownThey also removed the magnetic colloids and let them spontaneously interact. Not surprisingly, they aggregated and formed some interesting structures, such as loops, chains and 'handles' (a combination between a loop and a chain).  They noted that for these interactions to occur the colloids must be very magnetic and have large dipole energiesThey measured the magnetism and it was in line with there estimates.  They also noticed that the ring and handle formation never formed within bacteria.  They attributed this to the thought that maybe the bacteria somehow shielded the effects of the magnet so that the colloids could only form the chains they were produced in.
  
The group created negatively surface charged liposomes and anchored them to a quartz substrate.  They then fluorescently labeled these liposomes.  After this they fluorescently labeled other liposomes with a molecule emitting a different wavelengthWhen they put these two liposomes together, they did not bind to eachother as determined by fluorimetryAfter adding C2AB to the mixture, in the absence of <math>Ca^{2+}</math> still no binding occurred.  However, when <math>Ca^{2+}</math> was added, binding took place immediately, within two seconds.  They then used <math>Mg^{2+}</math> in place of <math>Ca^{2+}</math> to determine if it was the existence of any divalent cation that caused the binding.  The <math>Mg^{2+}</math> however did not cause binding.  This shows that the C2AB is only activated as a 'glue' in the presence of <math>Ca^{2+}</math>, and it is the positive charge of the <math>Ca^{2+}</math> along with the conformational change of the C2AB that is causing this activation.
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To experiment with this thought they put different magnetostatic bacteria together to see their interactionThey calculated the debye screening length and noted that it should not cause any repulsion between two side by side bacteriaThey then calculated the van der waals forces between two bacteria to measure the attraction they should feel towards each other.  They then did force measurements to see if the bacteria were at all attracted to each other due to the magnetic dipole force, and the results showed they were not attracted to one another.  The magnetic attraction, which is large enough to feel the earth's magnetic field, is also well screened so that it does not see any of its neighbors in other cells.  They did some modeling of the magnetic colloids within bacteria to show that the interactions with other colloids does not in any way effect colloidal stability.
  
They also studied how strong the binding was by doing repeated washings, and it was shown to be a strong bond, although this was only mentioned qualitatively, not qauntitatively in the paperFinally, it was noted that the more negatively charged the liposome surface was, the more binding that occurred with C2AB.
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FInally, they did sedimentation experiments that showed the bacteria did not aggregate at, again expected based on the previous resultsThis could have evolutionary advantages basd on competition for nutrients if the bacteria formed large clumps, or their magnetic poles effected one another. This was a neat article!

Latest revision as of 22:50, 12 November 2009

Original entry: William Bonificio, AP 225, Fall 2009

Information

Magnetic Colloids from Magnetotactic Bacteria: Chain Formation and Colloidal Stability. Albert P. Philipse and, Diana Maas. Langmuir 2002 18 (25), 9977-9984


Soft matter keywords

Magnetotactic Bacteria, paramagnetism, iron oxide, colloids, debye length.

Summary

The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions and colloidal stability of the single domain magnetic nanoparticles produced by magnetotactic bacteria. Magnetotactic bacteria are a really cool type of bacteria that create these iron oxide paramagnetic nanoparticles within their cell walls that align with the earth's magnetic field which in turn direct the the bacteria down towards the ocean floor, to anaerobic conditions where they thrive. These researchers wanted to look at how these magnetic particles would effect the interactions between different bacteria, and to investigate the properties of the magnetic colloids when extracted from the bacteria.

Soft matter discussion

Top and bottom images show a magnetotactic bacteria with magnetic colloids formed as chains. Middle image shows a magnetotactic bacteria with extracted magnetic colloids.


All different really cool formations and aggregations that spontaneously arose from extracted magnetic colloids.


Magnetic (left) and topographic (right) images of the extracted magnetic colloids.

The academic group conducting this research was interested in single domain iron oxide colloids. They noted that the size of the colloids in magnetotactic bacteria (50nm) was much larger than anything that would form spontaneously form ferrofluids (10nm). Because they are so large they are expected to have much stronger dipole forces, and should form different patterns such as chains and rings if removed from the bacteria. The group wants to look at the properties of these colloids when removed from the bacteria, and this is their first study examining the magnetic properties of the bacteria themselves.

The first thing they did was cultivate the bacteria, after this was performed they took some awesome pictures as shown. They also removed the magnetic colloids and let them spontaneously interact. Not surprisingly, they aggregated and formed some interesting structures, such as loops, chains and 'handles' (a combination between a loop and a chain). They noted that for these interactions to occur the colloids must be very magnetic and have large dipole energies. They measured the magnetism and it was in line with there estimates. They also noticed that the ring and handle formation never formed within bacteria. They attributed this to the thought that maybe the bacteria somehow shielded the effects of the magnet so that the colloids could only form the chains they were produced in.

To experiment with this thought they put different magnetostatic bacteria together to see their interaction. They calculated the debye screening length and noted that it should not cause any repulsion between two side by side bacteria. They then calculated the van der waals forces between two bacteria to measure the attraction they should feel towards each other. They then did force measurements to see if the bacteria were at all attracted to each other due to the magnetic dipole force, and the results showed they were not attracted to one another. The magnetic attraction, which is large enough to feel the earth's magnetic field, is also well screened so that it does not see any of its neighbors in other cells. They did some modeling of the magnetic colloids within bacteria to show that the interactions with other colloids does not in any way effect colloidal stability.

FInally, they did sedimentation experiments that showed the bacteria did not aggregate at, again expected based on the previous results. This could have evolutionary advantages basd on competition for nutrients if the bacteria formed large clumps, or their magnetic poles effected one another. This was a neat article!