# Liquid-Infused Nanostructured Surfaces with Extreme Anti-Ice and Anti-Frost Performance

Original entry by Bryan Weinstein, Fall 2012

## General Information

Authors: P. Kim, T. Wong, J. Alvarenga et al.

Keywords:

## Summary

The formation of ice on various pieces of equipment today poses serious safety risks. For example, if ice forms on the wing of an airplane before it takes off, the plane's lift will be greatly reduced and it can crash. Despite the need for anti-ice coatings, most state-of-the-art coatings allow water to freeze under "moderate conditions" (for example, a temperature less than $-5$ degrees Celsius and a relative humidity greater than 50%).

There are two main approaches to creating icephobic materials. One approach is to create an extremely smooth surface with small contact angle hysteresis and low wettability. In practice, however, this is quite difficult; it is nearly impossible to eliminate all defects and inhomogeneities on a surface. Another strategy is to create a “highly textured surface” that will decrease the surface’s ability to contain ice.

Dr. Aizenberg’s lab has created a new type of anti-ice coating by saturating a porous substrate with a lubricating liquid in order to create an ultra-smooth lubricating layer. This liquid layer is both defect free and molecularly flat; its contact angle hysteresis is consequently extremely small. As a result, it repels almost all immiscible materials and consequently helps to prevent the formation of ice on whatever material it coats. The design of the “slippery, liquid-infused porous surfaces” (SLIPS) were motivated by the slippery surface of the pitcher plant.

In order for SLIPS to work, three criteria must be fulfilled, according to the paper:

1. The lubricating and repellent fluid have to be immiscible
2. The chemical affinity between the lubricating fluid and the solid should be higher than the affinity between the repellent fluid and solid
3. The solid surface should have a porous structure to provide increased surface area for the adhesion of the lubricating fluid.

The Aizenberg group focused on developing ice-free coatings for aluminum as it is widely used in industry. They deposited highly textured polypyrrole (PPy) via electrodeposition on the surface of the aluminum, creating a textured and porous surface. They found that this method could be scaled-up to create textured surfaces on arbitrarily large surfaces, an important find for industry applications. They then fluorinated the structured with trichlorosilane and infiltrated the material with prefluorinated Krytox 100 (the lubricating liquid).

The Aizenberg group then wanted to quantitatively measure the performance of the anti-ice layer. Essentially, the smaller the material’s contact angle hysteresis, the smaller the drops are when they fall off of the material due to a slight incline. Therefore, to quantify the material’s anti-ice performance, the Aizenberg group measured the material’s contact angle hysteresis. The SLIPS were found to have a contact angle hysteresis of $\delta\theta = 2 \pm 1 \text{ Degrees}$. In comparison, untreated aluminum had a contact angle hysteresis of $\delta\theta = 41 \pm 4 \text{ Degrees}$. Consequently, the size at which droplets would fall off of SLIPS would occur at diameters approximately 8 times smaller than on untreated Aluminum.

To test that this helped to prevent materials from freezing on the surface of the SLIPS, the Aizenberg group built a humidity-controlled chamber where they could carry out frosting/defrosting experiments. They carried out all of their experiments at 60% relative humidity. As expected, the SLIPS displayed much better anti-icing performance than the untreated aluminum. Ice took much longer to form than on untreated alumninum and when it did, had a much less stable structure. Ice tended to occur in large, isolated patches on SLIPS while ice on the untreated aluminum tended to consist of densely packed sheets. The average ice adhesion strength on SLIPS was about 15.6 kPa while the adhesion strength on the untreated aluminum was 1359 kPa. Before SLIPS, state-of-the-art ice-repelling materials had an adhesion strength of approximately 165 kPa. Clearly, SLIPS have superior performance to other anti-ice coatings. Since SLIPS the adhesion force on SLIPS is so small, SLIPS would work particularly well on objects that can tilt or objects that are exposed to weak shear forces, as the ice would simply fall off.

## References

[1] Kim, P. et al. Liquid-infused nanostructured surfaces with extreme anti-ice and anti-frost performance. ACS Nano 6, 6569–77 (2012).