Liquid–solid-like transition in quasi-one-dimensional driven granular media
Clerc, M.G., Cordero, P., Dunstan, J., Huff, K., Mujica, N., Risso, D. & Varas, G., Nature Phys. 4, 249-254 (2008).
The subject of phases in granular matter is not well understood theoretically. Fluidized granular matter can be obtained by vertically vibrating granular layers. The layers exhibit standing-wave patterns when the system has undergone a solid-liquid-like transition.
Clerc et al. do an experimental and theoretical study of a monolayer of grains subjected to vertical vibration. <math>N</math>