How non-iridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers
Most colours in nature are inherent due to the chemical nature of the material - chlorophyll gives the green colour in leaves, anthocyanin the colour red in petals and carotenoids renders the rosy pink colour of flamingo's plumage. But it has been known for a long time that there are many colouring that has a more physical origin, such as diffraction and intereference of light. Newton explained the colour of the peacock feather in terms of thin-film intereference, and the colours of the butterfly wing can be understood due to intereference between lamellar layers, just as intereference between periodic groovings on a disc can give rise to colors.
But it is often thought that such structural colours are synonym with iridescence* - the phenomenon where the colour changes with viewing angle. This is because structural colours often arises due to highly-ordered, periodic structures which breaks the isotropy of space. The authors here demonstrates how conventional wisdom is not always true and how quasi-ordered structures in bird feathers can result in non-iridescent colours.
\*strictly speaking, it has been known that there are many scattering phenomenon that are non-iridescent, such as the scattering light of fat emulsions in milk, but this involves scattering of the whole spectrum of visible light giving the white colour in milk, whereas in peacock feather and butterfly wing, only light with a particular wavelengths are reflected.
It was found that the structural colour in
1. "How non-iridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers", Noh et al, Advanced Materials, 2010
2. "Encoding Complex Wettability Patterns in Chemically Functionalized 3D Photonic Crystals", Burgess et al, JACS, 2011
3. "Photophysics of Structural Color in the Morpho Butterflies", Kinoshita et al, Forma, 2002
4. "How cephalopods change color", Wood and Jackson