Formation of Monodisperse Bubbles in a Microfluidic Flow-Focusing Device
G. Whitesides, H. Stone et al., Applied Physics Letters Vol.85 No.13 (2004) 
This paper reports one of the first devices to produce monodisperse bubbles for microfluidic applications. Droplet-based microfluidics have huge potential in medical diagnostics, chemistry, drug discovery and beyond. The physical understanding of the process by which bubbles or droplets are created in various microfluidic geometries is critical to the development of such methods. The authors of this paper demonstrate the creation of gaseous bubbles surrounded by a liquid phase, with a polydispersity of less than 2% and at rates of <math>10^5</math> per second. Some scaling relations are presented in an attempt to develop an intuition of the factors affecting the volume of the bubbles produced and the frequency behaviour of the bubble formation.