Contact angle associated with thin liquid films in emulsions
The surface tension of liquid film can be very different from the surface tension of the liquid in bulk, because of contributions from the disjoining pressure. The authors described a method to measure the surface tension of a liquid film easily by measuring the contact angle formed between the film and the plateau border. The authors showed how the contact angle is related to the disjoining pressure and demonstrated how temperature and different salt concentrations changes the surface tension of liquid film.
The tension of the film, γL<\sub>
1. Contact angles associated with thin liquid films in emulsions, Aronson and Princen, Nature 1980