Charges at low conductivity

Introduction

Ions will associate if they get closer than an energy that corresponds to -kT. $\text{ }E_{coul}=\frac{-e^{2}}{4\pi \varepsilon _{r}\varepsilon _{0}d}$
In water: $\varepsilon _{H_{2}O}\simeq 80\text{ and }d\gg 0.7nm$
In oil: $\varepsilon _{oil}\simeq 2\text{ and }d\gg 27nm$

In oil the electrostatic attraction is longer range than in water. In oil the “solvated” ion must be much larger than in water.

Oil "Electrolytes"

 The micelle core is highly polar. Possibly like a molten salt? The diameters are 10’s of nanometers. Single polymer molecules may be sufficient.

Creation of charged micelles in oil

Micelles exchange ions with each other and with surfaces.

The equilibrium is a dynamic balance.

Reference

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Electrical double layers in oil

Reference
The electrostatic repulsion is determined by Coulombic forces between the charged particles: $\Delta G^{R}=\frac{\pi D\varepsilon _{0}d^{2}\zeta ^{2}}{d+H}$

Lightning

Electric charges at low conductivity!!!

ArtToday.com

Explosion in oil processing

Klinkenberg and van der Minne (1958)
“Early in 1954 a large tank in Shell’s refinery at Pernis exploded 40 minutes after the start of a blending operation in which a tops-naphtha mixture was being pumped into straight-run naphtha...

On the following day …again an explosion occurred 40 minutes …”

Common Misconceptions on "Static Electricity

For more detailed description go to this website(it's fun to read!): http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/emotor/stmiscon.html#two

• 'Static Electricity' is electricity which is static? → No.Electrostatics is not about "staticness," instead it's about charge and forces.
• Electric circuits use current, not 'static?' → No.
• Friction causes 'static electricity?' → Wrong.
• 'Static electricity' has nothing to do with High Voltage? →
• 'Static electricity' is a buildup of electrons? →
• Neutral objects have no charge? →
• 'Electricity' is a form of energy? →
• 'Charging' a capacitor fills it with charge? →
• We don't used 'Static electricity,' it's too weak and feeble? → Not exactly.
• 'Static' is a useless and rare event: sparks and dryer-cling? →
• Clouds are charged by rubbing together? →
• Ben Franklin's kite was struck by lightning? →
• Electrostatics" is the study of electricity at rest? →