Charges at low conductivity

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Introduction

Ions will associate if they get closer than an energy that corresponds to -kT. <math>\text{ }E_{coul}=\frac{-e^{2}}{4\pi \varepsilon _{r}\varepsilon _{0}d}</math>
In water: <math>\varepsilon _{H_{2}O}\simeq 80\text{ and }d\gg 0.7nm</math>
In oil: <math>\varepsilon _{oil}\simeq 2\text{ and }d\gg 27nm</math>

In oil the electrostatic attraction is longer range than in water. In oil the “solvated” ion must be much larger than in water.


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Oil "Electrolytes"

The micelle core is highly polar. Possibly like a molten salt?
The diameters are 10’s of nanometers.
Single polymer molecules may be sufficient.
InverseMicelle.png


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Creation of charged micelles in oil

Micelles exchange ions with each other and with surfaces.

The equilibrium is a dynamic balance.

Reference


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Creation of charged surfaces in oil

Reference


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Electrical double layers in oil

Reference
The electrostatic repulsion is determined by Coulombic forces between the charged particles: <math>\Delta G^{R}=\frac{\pi D\varepsilon _{0}d^{2}\zeta ^{2}}{d+H}</math>


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Lightning

Electric charges at low conductivity!!!


ArtToday.com


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Explosion in oil processing

Klinkenberg and van der Minne (1958)
“Early in 1954 a large tank in Shell’s refinery at Pernis exploded 40 minutes after the start of a blending operation in which a tops-naphtha mixture was being pumped into straight-run naphtha...


On the following day …again an explosion occurred 40 minutes …”



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Common Misconceptions on "Static Electricity

For more detailed description go to this website(it's fun to read!): http://www.eskimo.com/~billb/emotor/stmiscon.html#two


  • 'Static Electricity' is electricity which is static? → No.Electrostatics is not about "staticness," instead it's about charge and forces.
  • Electric circuits use current, not 'static?' → No.
  • Friction causes 'static electricity?' → Wrong.
  • 'Static electricity' has nothing to do with High Voltage? →
  • 'Static electricity' is a buildup of electrons? →
  • Neutral objects have no charge? →
  • 'Electricity' is a form of energy? →
  • 'Charging' a capacitor fills it with charge? →
  • We don't used 'Static electricity,' it's too weak and feeble? → Not exactly.
  • 'Static' is a useless and rare event: sparks and dryer-cling? →
  • Clouds are charged by rubbing together? →
  • Ben Franklin's kite was struck by lightning? →
  • Electrostatics" is the study of electricity at rest? →


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