In vitro

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A procedure which is in vitro is one which takes place outside of a living organism, but instead in an artificial environment.

There are multiple reasons why an experiment would be conducted in vitro. Two such reasons are: in order to control the environment variables more accurately so as to emphasis a particular effect, or because the experiment can't be done in vivo; the latter would occur if the measurement apparatus, for example, was detrimental to the survival of the living organism.