Extracellular matrix

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Prepared by Max Darnell - AP225 Fall 2011

Definition

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the network of proteins and associated molecules in tissues that serve a variety of roles in support of cells. ECM is most commonly found in fibrous form, with different protein components serving different functions. As a taste, the ECM provides mechanical support, cell adhesion sites for motility, physical connections between tissues, an anchor for various chemokines, and can act as a physical barrier, as in the basement membrane. [1,2]

Fibronectin
Elastin

The following are examples of common ECM proteins: Collagen-large fiber that provides mechanical stability. It is also the most common protein in the human body.

Elastin-provides elasticity, which is essential in tissues that expand or contract. Hence, this protein is common in tissues such as blood vessels, the lungs, and any epithelial tissues.

Fibronectin-serves as an intermediary between cells and the large collagen supports. It serves as the cell's main point of contact to the ECM.

Laminin-forms a fibrous web or network instead of arrays of fibers. This is an important structural protein in that the web can act as a binder for other heterogeneous ECM constructs. Retrieved from [1]

Cells adhere to the ECM via a collection of proteins called focal adhesions, the most important class of proteins being integrins. Integrins are heterodimers that bind to different peptide sequences on ECM (the most common is the RGD sequence). Based on the binding to these peptide sequences, the integrins can activate downstream signaling cascades that control a host of functions. [1]

Applications/Connections to Soft Matter

ECM proteins are receiving much attention within tissue engineering, as this field strives to recreate physiological environments such that cells organize into tissues and organs. In striving to achieve more accurate environments, engineers have tweaked various properties of the ECM, from the number and types of binding sites, to the degree of crosslinking in the polymer scaffolds. There has even been significant work in taking other hydrogels, such as alginate, and combining them with other ECM proteins to make hybrid scaffolds. [3,4]

Recent work has also focused on how cells exert traction forces on and remodel surrounding ECM to communicate. Instead of paracrine or synaptic signaling, cells could potentially sense the altered strain field in the matrix caused by the matrix remodeling.[3]

References

[1]Alberts B, Bray D, Hopin K, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2004). "Tissues and Cancer". Essential cell biology. New York and London: Garland Science.

[2]Lodish H, Berk A, Matsudaira P, Kaiser CA, Krieger M, Scott MP, Zipursky SL, Darnell J. "Integrating Cells Into Tissues". Molecular Cell Biology (5th ed.). New York: WH Freeman and Company. pp. 197–234.

[3]Sluijter, J. P. G., Smeets, M. B., Velema, E., Pasterkamp, G., & De Kleijn, D. P. V. (2004). Increase in collagen turnover but not in collagen fiber content is associated with flow-induced arterial remodeling. Journal of Vascular Research, 41(6), 546-555.

[4]Lee, H.-jin, Ahn, S.-hyun, & Kim, G. H. (2011). Three-Dimensional Collagen / Alginate Hybrid Scaffolds Functionalized with a Drug Delivery System ( DDS ) for Bone Tissue Regeneration. Chemistry of Materials.

Keyword in references:

Crosslinking of cell-derived 3D scaffolds up-regulates the stretching and unfolding of new extracellular matrix assembled by reseeded cells