Calcination

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Calcination refers to a process where by the sample is heated in air or oxygen to a high temperature, but below its overall melting point, causing some part of the sample to be undergo a phase change and be removed.

It has been used by Subramanian et al in their paper Ordered Macroporous Materials by Colloidal Assembly: A Possible Route to Photonic Bandgap Materials in order to remove polystyrene beads from a macroporous network of silica or titania. In this case, the melting point of the polystyrene is much less than that of the silica or titania, and so the beads melt and leave behind a porous structure.